A blog and website by Peter Bengtsson

How to track Google Analytics pageviews on non-web requests (with Python)

03 May 2016 1 comment   Mozilla, Django, Web development, Python

tl;dr; Use raven's ThreadedRequestsHTTPTransport transport class to send Google Analytics pageview trackings asynchronously to Google Analytics to collect pageviews that aren't actually browser pages.

We have an API on our Django site that was not designed from the ground up. We had a bunch of internal endpoints that were used by the website. So we simply exposed those as API endpoints that anybody can query. All we did was wrap certain parts carefully as to not expose private stuff and we wrote a simple web page where you can see a list of all the endpoints and what parameters are needed. Later we added auth-by-token.

Now the problem we have is that we don't know which endpoints people use and, as equally important, which ones people don't use. If we had more stats we'd be able to confidently deprecate some (for easier maintanenace) and optimize some (to avoid resource overuse).

Our first attempt was to use statsd to collect metrics and display those with graphite. But it just didn't work out. There are just too many different "keys". Basically, each endpoint (aka URL, aka URI) is a key. And if you include the query string parameters, the number of keys just gets nuts. Statsd and graphite is better when you have about as many keys as you have fingers on one hand. For example, HTTP error codes, 200, 302, 400, 404 and 500.

Also, we already use Google Analytics to track pageviews on our website, which is basically a measure of how many people render web pages that have HTML and JavaScript. Google Analytic's UI is great and powerful. I'm sure other competing tools like Mixpanel, Piwik, Gauges, etc are great too, but Google Analytics is reliable, likely to stick around and something many people are familiar with.

So how do you simulate pageviews when you don't have JavaScript rendering? The answer; using plain HTTP POST. (HTTPS of course). And how do you prevent blocking on sending analytics without making your users have to wait? By doing it asynchronously. Either by threading or a background working message queue.

Threading or a message queue

If you have a message queue configured and confident in its running, you should probably use that. But it adds a certain element of complexity. It makes your stack more complex because now you need to maintain a consumer(s) and the central message queue thing itself. What if you don't have a message queue all set up? Use Python threading.

To do the threading, which is hard, it's always a good idea to try to stand on the shoulder of giants. Or, if you can't find a giant, find something that is mature and proven to work well over time. We found that in Raven.

Raven is the Python library, or "agent", used for Sentry, the open source error tracking software. As you can tell by the name, Raven tries to be quite agnostic of Sentry the server component. Inside it, it has a couple of good libraries for making threaded jobs whose task is to make web requests. In particuarly, the awesome ThreadedRequestsHTTPTransport. Using it basically looks like this:

import urlparse
from raven.transport.threaded_requests import ThreadedRequestsHTTPTransport

transporter = ThreadedRequestsHTTPTransport(

params = {
    ...more about this later...

def success_cb():
    print "Yay!"

def failure_cb(exception):
    print "Boo :("


The call isn't very different from regular plain old

About the parameters

This is probably the most exciting part and the place where you need some thought. It's non-trivial because you might need to put some careful thought into what you want to track.

Your friends is: This documentation page

There's also the Hit Builder tool where you can check that the values you are going to send make sense.

Some of the basic ones are easy:

"Protocol Version"

Just set to v=1

"Tracking ID"

That code thing you see in the regular chunk of JavaScript you put in the head, e.g tid=UA-1234-Z

"Data Source"

Optional word you call this type of traffic. We went with ds=api because we use it to measure the web API.

The user ones are a bit more tricky. Basically because you don't want to accidentally leak potentially sensitive information. We decided to keep this highly anonymized.

"Client ID"

A random UUID (version 4) number that identifies the user or the app. Not to be confused with "User ID" which is basically a string that identifies the user's session storage ID or something. Since in our case we don't have a user (unless they use an API token) we leave this to a new random UUID each time. E.g. cid=uuid.uuid4().hex This field is not optional.

"User ID"

Some string that identifies the user but doesn't reveal anything about the user. For example, we use the PostgreSQL primary key ID of the user as a string. It just means we can know if the same user make several API requests but we can never know who that user is. Google Analytics uses it to "lump" requests together. This field is optional.

Next we need to pass information about the hit and the "content". This is important. Especially the "Hit type" because this is where you make your manually server-side tracking act as if the user had clicked around on the website with a browser.

"Hit type"

Set this to t=pageview and it'll show up Google Analytics as if the user had just navigated to the URL in her browser. It's kinda weird to do this because clearly the user hasn't. Most likely she's used curl or something from the command line. So it's not really a pageview but, on our end, we have "views" in the webserver that produce information to the user. Some of it is HTML and some of it is JSON, in terms of output format, but either way they're sending us a URL and we respond with data.

"Document location URL"

The full absolute URL of that was used. E.g. So in our Django app we set this to dl=request.build_absolute_uri(). If you have a site where you might have multiple domains in use but want to collect them all under just 1 specific domain you need to set

"Document Host Name" and "Document Path"

I actually don't know what the point of this is if you've already set the "Document location URL".

"Document Title"

In Google Analytics you can view your Content Drilldown by title instead of by URL path. In our case we set this to a string we know from the internal Python class that is used to make the API endpoint. dt='API (%s)'%api_model.__class__.__name__.

There are many more things you can set, such as the clients IP, the user agent, timings, exceptions. We chose to NOT include the user's IP. If people using the JavaScript version of Google Analytics can set their browser to NOT include the IP, we should respect that. Also, it's rarely interesting to see where the requests for a web API because it's often servers' curl or requests that makes the query, not the human.

Sample implementation

Going back to the code example mentioned above, let's demonstrate a fuller example:

import urlparse
from raven.transport.threaded_requests import ThreadedRequestsHTTPTransport

transporter = ThreadedRequestsHTTPTransport(

# Remember, this is a Django, but you get the idea

if not domain or domain == 'auto':
    domain = RequestSite(request).domain

params = {
    'v': 1,
    'tid': settings.GOOGLE_ANALYTICS_ID,
    'dh': domain,
    't': 'pageview,
    'ds': 'api',
    'cid': uuid.uuid4().hext,
    'dp': request.path,
    'dl': request.build_request_uri(),
    'dt': 'API ({})'.format(model_class.__class__.__name__),
    'ua': request.META.get('HTTP_USER_AGENT'),

def success_cb():'Successfully informed Google Analytics (%s)', params)

def failure_cb(exception):


How to unit test this

The class we're using, ThreadedRequestsHTTPTransport has, as you might have seen, a method called async_send. There's also one, with the exact same signature, called sync_send which does the same thing but in a blocking fashion. So you could make your code look someting silly like this:

def send_tracking(page_title, request, async=True):
    # ...same as example above but wrapped in a function...
    function = async and transporter.async_send or transporter.sync_send

And then in your tests you pass in async=False instead.
But don't do that. The code shouldn't be sub-serviant to the tests (unless it's for the sake of splitting up monster-long functions).
Instead, I recommend you mock the inner workings of that ThreadedRequestsHTTPTransport class so you can make the whole operation synchronous. For example...

import mock
from django.test import TestCase
from django.test.client import RequestFactory

from import pageview_tracking

class TestTracking(TestCase):

    def test_pageview_tracking(self, rpost, aw):

        def mocked_queue(function, data, headers, success_cb, failure_cb):
            function(data, headers, success_cb, failure_cb)

        aw().queue.side_effect = mocked_queue

        request = RequestFactory().get('/some/page')
        with self.settings(GOOGLE_ANALYTICS_ID='XYZ-123'):
            pageview_tracking('Test page', request)

            # Now we can assert that '' was called.
            # Left as an exercise to the reader :)
            print rpost.mock_calls       

This is synchronous now and works great. It's not finished. You might want to write a side effect for the so you can have better control of that post. That'll also give you a chance to potentially NOT return a 200 OK and make sure that your failure_cb callback function gets called.

How to manually test this

One thing I was very curious about when I started was to see how it worked if you really ran this for reals but without polluting your real Google Analytics account. For that I built a second little web server on the side, whose address I used instead of So, change your code so that is not hardcoded but a variable you can change locally. Change it to http://localhost:5000/ and start this little Flask server:

import time
import random
from flask import Flask, abort, request

app = Flask(__name__)
app.debug = True

@app.route("/", methods=['GET', 'POST'])
def hello():
    print "- " * 40
    print request.method, request.path
    print "ARGS:", request.args
    print "FORM:", request.form
    print "DATA:", repr(
    if request.args.get('sleep'):
        sec = int(request.args['sleep'])
        print "** Sleeping for", sec, "seconds"
        print "** Done sleeping."
    if random.randint(1, 5) == 1:
    elif random.randint(1, 5) == 1:
        # really get it stuck now
    return "OK"

if __name__ == "__main__":

Now you get an insight into what gets posted and you can pretend that it's slow to respond. Also, you can get an insight into how your app behaves when this collection destination throws a 5xx error.

How to really test it

Google Analytics is tricky to test in that they collect all the stuff they collect then they take their time to process it and it then shows up the next day as stats. But, there's a hack! You can go into your Google Analytics account and click "Real-Time" -> "Overview" and you should see hits coming in as you're testing this. Obviously you don't want to do this on your real production account, but perhaps you have a stage/dev instance you can use. Or, just be patient :)

.git/info/exclude, .gitignore and ~/.gitignore_global

20 April 2016 2 comments   MacOSX, Linux

How did I not know about this until now?! .git/info/exlude is like .gitingore but yours to mess with. Thanks @willkg!

There are three ways to tell Git to ignore files.


A file you check in to the project. It's shared amongst developers on the project. It's just a plain text file where you write one line per file pattern that Git should not ask "Have you forgotten to check this in?"

Certain things that are good to put in there are...:


Ideally, this file should be as small as possible and every entry should confidently be something 100% of the developers on the team will want to ignore. If your particular editor has some convention for storing state or revision files, that does not belong on this file.

A reason to keep it short is that of purity and simplicity. Every edit of this file will require a git commit.


This is yours to keep and maintain. The file doesn't have to be in your home directory. (The ~/ is UNIX nomenclature for your OS user home directory). You can set it to be anything. Like:

$ git config --global core.excludesfile ~/projects/dotfiles/gitignore-global.txt

Here you put stuff you want to personally ignore in every Git project. New and old.

Good examples of things to put in it are...:



This is a kinda mix between the two above mentioned ignore files. This is things only you want to ignore in a specific project. More or less "junk files" specific to a project. For example if you, in your Git clone, has some test scripts or a specific log file.

Suppose you have a little hack script or some specific config that is only applicable to the project at hand, this is where you add it. For example...:

I hope this helps someone else who, like me, didn't know about .git/info/exclude until 2016.

Don't that this or bind

12 April 2016 2 comments   Javascript


Having to create a variable outside the nested scope so that when you refer to this you refer to the parent's scope.

var Increaser = function(amount) {
  this.amount = amount;
Increaser.prototype.add = function(value) {
  if (Array.isArray(value)) {
    var that = this;  // NOTE!
    return {
      return item + that.amount;
  } else {
    return value + this.amount;

var inc = new Increaser(2);

console.log(inc.add(10)); // 12
console.log(inc.add([1, 2, 3])); // [3, 4, 5]

On CodePen

Why it's bad. Because it's code smell. Meaning, it's a hack that goes against what's natural. Also, because it's not necessary. There is a better solution. Hold tight. Code smells have a tendency to get worse. In this case we only have 1 function with its own scope so we can allow ourselves to call it just "that". If it was more complex, we'd have to call it "first_this" or "outer_that" or something ugly.

It's a cheap solution and it works but the risk is that the code becomes hard for humans to debug once it grows in scope.

Also Wrong But Better

var Increaser = function(amount) {
  this.amount = amount;
Increaser.prototype.add = function(value) {
  if (Array.isArray(value)) {
   return {
     return item + this.amount;
   }.bind(this));  // NOTE!
  } else {
    return value + this.amount;

var inc = new Increaser(2);

console.log(inc.add(10)); // 12
console.log(inc.add([1, 2, 3])); // [3, 4, 5]

On CodePend

Why it's bad. Using .bind() creates a new function. It might not matter in this scenario but asking the JavaScript engine to create yet another function object in memory might matter in terms of optimization.

Why it's better. Because you "fix things" before it gets worse. This way, when deep inside the nested scope you don't need to juggle the name of what the this has temporarily been re-bound to.


The map function takes a second argument that is the context. This is true for forEach, filter and find too.

var Increaser = function(amount) {
  this.amount = amount;
Increaser.prototype.add = function(value) {
  if (Array.isArray(value)) {
   return {
     return item + this.amount;
   }, this);  // NOTE!
  } else {
    return value + this.amount;

var inc = new Increaser(2);

console.log(inc.add(10)); // 12
console.log(inc.add([1, 2, 3])); // [3, 4, 5]

Why it's better.

No new assignment of a variable. No need to bind, which means it doesn't create a new function. And it's built-in.

Much Righter

Switch to ES6! Then you can use fat arrow functions.

class Increaser {
  constructor(amount) {
    this.amount = amount;
  add(value) {
    if (Array.isArray(value)) {
      return => {
        return item + this.amount;
    } else {
      return value + this.amount;

let inc = new Increaser(2);

console.log(inc.add(10)); // 12
console.log(inc.add([1, 2, 3])); // [3, 4, 5]

On CodePen

Why it's better: Because then the whole problem goes away. Fat arrow functions are functions that have no scope of their own. Just like if statements. (EDIT: That's an over simplification. They do have their own scope. Just no own arguments or own this)

4 different kinds of React component styles

07 April 2016 4 comments   Javascript, ReactJS

I know I'm going to be laughed at for having misunderstood the latest React lingo and best practice. But guess, what I don't give a ...

I'm starting to like React more and more. There's a certain element of confidence about them since they only do what you ask them to do and even though there's state involved, if you do things right it feels like it's only one direction that state "flows". And events also only flow in one direction (backwards, sort of).

However, an ugly wart with React is the angle of it being hard to learn. All powerful things are hard to learn but it's certainly not made easier when there are multiple ways to do the same thing. What I'm referring to is how to write components.

Partly as a way of me learning and summorizing what I've come to understand and partly to jot it down so others can be helped by the same summary. Others who are in a similar situation as I am with learning React.

The default Component Class

This is what I grew up learning. This is code you most likely start with and then realize, there is no need for state here.

class Button extends React.Component {

  static propTypes = {
    day: PropTypes.string.isRequired,
    increment: PropTypes.func.isRequired,

  render() {
    return (
        <button onClick={this.props.increment}>Today is {}</button>

The old style createClass component

I believe this is what you used before you had ES6 so readily available. And I heard a rumor from Facebook that this is going to be deprecated. Strange rumor considering that createClass is still used in the main documentation.

const Button = React.createClass({
  propTypes: {
    day: PropTypes.string.isRequired,
    increment: PropTypes.func.isRequired,

  render: function() {
    return (
        <button onClick={this.props.increment}>Today is {}</button>

The Stateless Function component

Makes it possible to do some JavaScript right there before the return

const Button = ({
}) => {
  return (
      <button onClick={increment}>Today is {day}</button>

Button.propTypes = {
  day: PropTypes.string.isRequired,
  increment: PropTypes.func.isRequired,

The Presentational Component

An ES6 shortcut trick whereby you express a onliner lambda function as if it's got a body of its own.

const Button = ({
}) => (
    <button onClick={increment}>Today is {day}</button>

Button.propTypes = {
  day: PropTypes.string.isRequired,
  increment: PropTypes.func.isRequired,

Some thoughts and reactions

Please Please Share your thoughts and reactions and I'll try to collect it and incorporate it into this blog post.

Web performance optimization's dark side

16 March 2016 0 comments   Web development

See this comment on Yoav Weiss's article on Preload: What Is It Good For?.

Xe (He or she) is being a bit of a jack ass and not respecting the fact that latency is still a big problem and the simple fact that a LOT of people still have slow Internet speeds. Even in the USA (which for the record generally sucks at broadband compared to many other western countries).

But the point being made here is that obsessing over saving milliseconds here and there drains the fun in web development.

I remember back in the days I used to love the web. Development was fun, entertaining, and provided many levels of enjoyment. To some extent it still is today. But it’s getting so obsessive that maybe it’s not me the one who needs counseling.


That’s how it feels with all these obsessive new techniques and tricks. Just to get that page loaded by an extra 6 milliseconds faster.

Can't think of a good defense to these comments. It's not going to stop me from trying to shave milliseconds here and there. Having a fast web app doesn't just make it faster. It makes it "better". When something feels fast, it feels like higher quality. And I think users of fast web apps have a more positive attitude towards features/bugs.

But xe is right. It does zap some of the fun of web development. It used to be about adding content and features. Now it's about this constant "dieting". We wouldn't have this problem if the sites didn't weight 2-3Mb of PNGs, 100Kb CSS and massive font files.

I too feel the blues sometimes especially since a lot of performance improvements are so hard to notice with a human pair of eyes. The point is. Uh. The point is.... Hmm.

The point is; the more advanced we make the web the harder it's going to be to keep up and every time a speed-freak blogs about some millisecond shavings, the beginner developers are going to think "Oh shit! I have to learn that too?!" But then again, pushing the envelope is just so much fun!

Ctags in Atom on OSX

26 February 2016 0 comments   MacOSX, Web development

Symbols View setting page
In Atom, by default there's a package called symbols-view. It basically allows you to search for particular functions, classes, variables etc. Most often not by typing but by search based on whatever word the cursor is currently on.

With this all installed and set up I can now press Cmd-alt-Down and it automatically jumps to the definition of that thing. If the result is ambiguous (e.g. two functions called get_user_profile) it'll throw up the usual search dialog at the top.

To have this set up you need to use something called ctags. It's a command line tool.

This Stack Overflow post helped tremendously. The ctags I had installed was something else (presumably put there by installing emacs). So I did:

$ brew install ctags

And then added
alias ctags="`brew --prefix`/bin/ctags" my ~/.bash_profile

Now I can run ctags -R . and it generates a binary'ish file called tags in the project root.

However, the index of symbols in a project greatly varies with different branches. So I need a different tags file for each branch. How to do that? By hihjacking the .git/hooks/post-checkout hook.

Now, this is where things get interesting. Every project has "junk". Stuff you have in your project that isn't files you're likely to edit. So you'll need to list those one by one. Anyway, here's what my post-checkout looks like:


set -x

ctags -R \
  --exclude=build \
  --exclude=.git \
  --exclude=webapp-django/static \
  --exclude=webapp-django/node_modules \

This'll be run every time I check out a branch, e.g. git checkout master.

Whatsdeployed on only one site

26 February 2016 0 comments   Python, Web development, Mozilla

Last year I developed a web app called "Whatsdeployed". It's one of those rare one-afternoon-hacks that turns out to be really really useful. I use it every [work]day. And I've heard many people say they use it too.

At the time I built it, it only supported comparing multiple instance. E.g. a production and a dev site. Or a test, stage and production. But oftentimes, especially for smaller projects, you might only just have your one deployed site.

So I've now made it possible so you can compare just 1 site against your master branch.

For example:


What these do, is simply comparing what git sha revision is deployed on those side-projects, compared to the latest git sha on the master branch on

How to no-mincss links with django-pipeline

03 February 2016 2 comments   Python, Web development, Django

This might be the kind of problem only I have, but I thought I'd share in case others are in a similar pickle.

Warming Up

First of all, the way my personal site works is that every rendered page gets cached as rendered HTML. Midway, storing the rendered page in the cache, an optimization transformation happens. It basically takes HTML like this:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="vendor.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="stuff.css">

into this:

/* optimized contents of vendor.css and stuff.css minified */

Just right-click and "View Page Source" and you'll see.

When it does this it also filters out CSS selectors in those .css files that aren't actually used in the rendered HTML. This makes the inlined CSS much smaller. Especially since so much of the CSS comes from a CSS framework.

However, there are certain .css files that have references to selectors that aren't in the generated HTML but are needed later when some JavaScript changes the DOM based on AJAX or user actions. For example, the CSS used by the Autocompeter widget. The program that does this CSS optimization transformation is called mincss and it has a feature where you can tell it to NOT bother with certain CSS selectors (using a CSS comment) or certain <link> tags entirely. It looks like this:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="ajaxstuff.css" data-mincss="no">

Where Does django-pipeline Come In?

So, setting that data-mincss="no" isn't easy when you use django-pipeline because you don't write <link ... in your Django templates, you write {% stylesheet 'name-of-bundle %}. So, how do you get it in?

Well, first let's define the bundle. In my case it looks like this:

  # Bundle of CSS that strictly isn't needed at pure HTML render-time
  'base_dynamic': {
        'source_filenames': (
        'extra_context': {
            'no_mincss': True,
        'output_filename': 'css/base-dynamic.min.css',

But that isn't enough. Next, I need to override how django-pipeline turn that block into a <link ...> tag. To do that, you need to create a directory and file called pipeline/css.html (or pipeline/css.jinja if you use Jinja rendering by default).

So take the default one from inside the pipeline package and copy it into your project into one of your apps's templates directory. For example, in my case, peterbecom/apps/base/templates/pipeline/css.jinja. Then, in that template add at the very end somehting like this:

{% if no_mincss %} data-mincss="no"{% endif %} />

The Point?

The point is that if you're in a similar situation where you want django-pipeline to output the <link> or <script> tag differently than it's capable of, by default, then this is a good example of that.

Bestest and securest way to handle Python dependencies

01 February 2016 0 comments   Python

pip 8 is out and with it, the ability to only install dependencies you've vetted. Thank Erik Rose! Now you can be absolutely certain that dependencies you downloaded and installed locally is absolutely identical to the dependencies you download and install in your production server.


So your server needs pip to install those dependencies safely and securely. Initially you have to trust the pip/virtualenv that is installed globally on the system. If you can trust it but unsure it's a good version of pip version 8 and up, that's where comes in. It makes sure you get a pip version installed that supports pip install with hashes:

Add to your git/hg repo and use it to make sure you have a good pip. For example your deployment script might look like this now:

git pull origin master
virtualenv venv
source venv/bin/activate
python ./tools/
pip install --require-hashes -r requirements.txt

Then hashin

Thanks to pipstrap we now have a version of pip that really does check the hashes you've put in the requirements.txt file.

(By the way, the --require-hashes on pip install is optional. pip will imply it if the requirements.txt file appears to have hashes defined. But to avoid the risk and you accidentally fumbling a bad requirements.txt it's good to specify --require-hashes to pip install)

Now that you're up and running and you sleep well at night because you know your production server has exactly the same dependencies you had when you did the development and unit testing, how do you get the hashes in there?

The tricks is to install hashin. (pip install hashin). It helps you write those hashes.

Suppose you have a requirements.txt file that looks like this:


You can try to run pip install --require-hashes -r requirements.txt and learn from the errors. E.g.:

Hashes are required in --require-hashes mode, but they are missing from some requirements. 
Here is a list of those requirements along with the hashes their downloaded archives actually 
had. Add lines like these to your requirements files to prevent tampering. (If you did not 
enable --require-hashes manually, note that it turns on automatically when any package has a hash.)
    Django==1.9.1 --hash=sha256:9f7ca04c6dbcf08b794f2ea5283c60156a37ebf2b8316d1027f594f34ff61101
    bgg==0.22.1 --hash=sha256:e5172c3fda0e8a42d1797fd1ff75245c3953d7c8574089a41a219204dbaad83d
    html2text==2016.1.8 --hash=sha256:088046f9b126761ff7e3380064d4792279766abaa5722d0dd765d011cf0bb079

But those are just the hashes for your particular environment (and your particular support for Python wheels). Instead, take each requirement and run it through hashin

$ hashin Django==1.9.1
$ hashin bgg==0.22.1
$ hashin html2text==2016.1.8

Now your requirements.txt will look like this:

Django==1.9.1 \
    --hash=sha256:9f7ca04c6dbcf08b794f2ea5283c60156a37ebf2b8316d1027f594f34ff61101 \
bgg==0.22.1 \
    --hash=sha256:e5172c3fda0e8a42d1797fd1ff75245c3953d7c8574089a41a219204dbaad83d \
html2text==2016.1.8 \

One Last Note

pip is smart enough to traverse the nested dependencies of packages that need to be installed. For example, suppose you do:

$ hashin premailer

It will only add...

premailer==2.9.7 \
    --hash=sha256:1516cbb972234446660bf7862b28521f0fc8b5e7f3087655f35ae5dd233013a3 \
    --hash=sha256:843e624bdac9d28725b217559904aa5a217c1a94707bc2ecef6c91a8d82f1a23 your requirements.txt. But this package has a bunch of dependencies of its own. To find out what those are, let pip "fail for you".

$ pip install --require-hashes -r requirements.txt
Collecting premailer==2.9.7 (from -r r.txt (line 1))
  Downloading premailer-2.9.7-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting lxml (from premailer==2.9.7->-r r.txt (line 1))
Collecting cssutils (from premailer==2.9.7->-r r.txt (line 1))
Collecting cssselect (from premailer==2.9.7->-r r.txt (line 1))
In --require-hashes mode, all requirements must have their versions pinned with ==. These do not:
    lxml from (from premailer==2.9.7->-r r.txt (line 1))
    cssutils from (from premailer==2.9.7->-r r.txt (line 1))
    cssselect from (from premailer==2.9.7->-r r.txt (line 1))

So apparently you need to hashin those three dependencies:

$ hashin lxml
$ hashin cssutils
$ hashin cssselect

Now your requirements.txt file will look something like this:

premailer==2.9.7 \
    --hash=sha256:1516cbb972234446660bf7862b28521f0fc8b5e7f3087655f35ae5dd233013a3 \
lxml==3.5.0 \
    --hash=sha256:349f93e3a4b09cc59418854ab8013d027d246757c51744bf20069bc89016f578 \
    --hash=sha256:8628cc82957c41be10abce889a1976ceb7b9e3f36ebffa4fcb1a80901bf77adc \
    --hash=sha256:1c9c26bb6c31c3d5b3c104e843211d9c105db60b4df6770ac42673263d55d494 \
    --hash=sha256:01e54511034333f18772c335ec0b33a76bba988135eaf727a075897866d19604 \
    --hash=sha256:2abf6cac9b7952047d8b7265384a9565e419a727dba675e83e4b7f5b7892b6bb \
cssutils==1.0.1 \
    --hash=sha256:78ac48006ac2336b9456e88a75ed35f6a31a030c65162503b7af01a60d78db5a \
cssselect==0.9.1 \

Ah... Now you feel confident.

Actually, One More Last Note

Sorry for repeating the obvious but it's so important it's worth making it loud and clear:

Use the same pip install procedure and requirements.txt file everywhere

I.e. Install the depdendencies the same way on your laptop, your continuous integration server, your staging server and production server. That really makes sure you're running the same process and the same dependencies everywhere.

A quicksearch for Bugzilla using Autocompeter

27 January 2016 0 comments   Python, Web development, Mozilla, Javascript

Here's the final demo.

What I did was, I used the Bugzilla REST APIs to download all bugs for a specific product. Then I bulk-uploaded then to and lastly built a simply web front-end.

When you "download all" bugs with the Bugzilla REST API, it might be capped but I don't know what the limit is. The trick is to not download ALL bugs for the product in one big fat query, but to find out what all components are for that product and then download for each. The Python code is here.

Everyone's Invited to Play

So first you need to sign in on using your GitHub account. Then you can generate a Auth-Key by picking a domain. The domain can be anything really. I picked but you can use whatever you like.

Then, when you have an Auth-Key you need to know the name of the product (or products) and run the script like this:

python 7U4eFYH5cqR15m3ekuxkzaUR Socorro

Once you've done that, fork my codepen and replace the domain and any other references to the product.


To make this really useful, you'd have to run it more often. Perhaps you can hook it up to a cron job or something and make it so that you only download, from the REST API, things that have changed since the last time you did a big download. Then you can let the cron job run frequently.

If you want really hot results, you could hook up a server-side service that consumes the Bugzfeed websocket.

Last but not least; this will never list private/secure bugs. Only publically available stuff.

The Future

If people enjoy it perhaps we can change the front-end demo so it's not hardcoded to one specific product ("Socorro" in my case). And it can be made pretty.

And the data would need to be downloaded and re-submitted more frequently. A quick Heroku app mayhaps?